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History[ edit ] Rome for many centuries had been the goal of pilgrims, especially during Jubilee when they visited the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.
In Britain, Thomas Coryat 's travel book Coryat's Cruditiespublished during the Twelve Years' Trucewas an early influence on the Grand Tour but it was the far more extensive tour through Italy as far as Naples undertaken by the 'Collector' Earl of Arundelwith his wife and children in —14 that established the most significant precedent.
This is partly because he asked Inigo Jonesnot yet established as an architect but already known as a 'great traveller' and masque designer, to act as his cicerone guide. According to the Oxford English Dictionarythe first recorded use of the term perhaps its introduction to English Domestic tourism essay by Richard Lassels c.
John Moore and the latter's son John. A view of Geneva is in the distance where they stayed for two years. Painted by Jean Preudhomme in The idea of travelling for the sake of curiosity and learning was a developing idea in the 17th century.
With John Locke 's Essay Concerning Human Understandingit was argued, and widely accepted, that knowledge comes entirely from the external senses, that what one knows comes from the physical stimuli to which one has been exposed. Thus, one could "use up" the environment, taking from it all it offers, requiring a change of place.
Travel, therefore, was necessary for one to develop the mind and expand knowledge of the world. As a young man at the outset of his account of a repeat Grand Tour, the historian Edward Gibbon remarked that "According to the law of custom, and perhaps of reason, foreign travel completes the education of an English gentleman.
On the eve of the Romantic era he played a significant part in introducing, William Beckford wrote a vivid account of his Grand Tour that made Gibbon's unadventurous Italian tour look distinctly conventional.
Recounting one's observations to society at large to increase its welfare was considered an obligation; the Grand Tour Domestic tourism essay in this mindset. Grand Tourists would return with crates full of books, works of art, scientific instruments, and cultural artefacts — from snuff boxes and paperweights, to altars, fountains, and statuary — to be displayed in libraries, cabinetsgardens, drawing roomsand galleries built for that purpose.
The trappings of the Grand Tour, especially portraits of the traveller painted in continental settings, became the obligatory emblems of worldliness, gravitas and influence.
Artists who particularly thrived on the Grand Tour market included Carlo Marattiwho was first patronised by John Evelyn as early as Pompeo Batoni the portraitistand the vedutisti such as CanalettoPannini and Guardi.
The less well-off could return with an album of Piranesi etchings. The "perhaps" in Gibbon's opening remark cast an ironic shadow over his resounding statement. Northerners found the contrast between Roman ruins and modern peasants of the Roman Campagna an educational lesson in vanities [ citation needed ] painting by Nicolaes Pietersz Berchem, Mauritshuis Also worth noticing is that the Grand Tour not only fostered stereotypes of the countries visited but also led to a dynamic of contrast between northern and southern Europe.
By constantly depicting Italy as a "picturesque place", the travellers also unconsciously degraded Italy as a place of backwardness. During much of the 19th century, most educated young men of privilege undertook the Grand Tour.
Germany and Switzerland came to be included in a more broadly defined circuit. Later, it became fashionable for young women as well; a trip to Italy, with a spinster aunt as chaperonewas part of the upper-class woman's education, as in E.
Forster 's novel A Room with a View. It should be noted that British travellers were far from alone on the roads of Europe. On the contrary, from the midth century the grand tour was established as an ideal way to finish off the education of young men in countries such as Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden.
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After studies at one or two renowned universities, preferably those of Leiden and Heidelberg, the Swedish grand tourists set off to France and Italy, where they spent time in Paris, Rome and Venice and completed the original grand tour on the French countryside.
From there the tourist, usually accompanied by a tutor known colloquially as a " bear-leader " and if wealthy enough a troop of servants, could rent or acquire a coach which could be resold in any city or disassembled and packed across the Alpsas in Giacomo Casanova 's travels, who resold it on completionor opt to make the trip by boat as far as the Alps, either travelling up the Seine to Paris, or up the Rhine to Basel.
Upon hiring a French-speaking guide, as French was the dominant language of the elite in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, the tourist and his entourage would travel to Paris. There the traveller might undertake lessons in French, dancingfencingand riding.
The appeal of Paris lay in the sophisticated language and manners of French high society, including courtly behavior and fashion. This served the purpose of preparing the young man for a leadership position at home, often in government or diplomacy. Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland —painted in classical dress in Rome by Carlo Maratti From Paris he would typically go to urban Switzerland for a while, often to Geneva the cradle of the Protestant Reformation or Lausanne.
From there the traveller would endure a difficult crossing over the Alps into northern Italy such as at the Great St Bernard Passwhich included dismantling the carriage and luggage. Once in Italy, the tourist would visit Turin and, less often, Milanthen might spend a few months in Florencewhere there was a considerable Anglo-Italian society accessible to travelling Englishmen "of quality" and where the Tribuna of the Uffizi gallery brought together in one space the monuments of High Renaissance paintings and Roman sculptures that would inspire picture galleries adorned with antiquities at home, with side trips to Pisathen move on to Padua Bolognaand Venice.
The British idea of Venice as the "locus of decadent Italianate allure" made it an epitome and cultural setpiece of the Grand Tour. Some travellers also visited Naples to study music, and after the midth century to appreciate the recently discovered archaeological sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii and perhaps for the adventurous an ascent of Mount Vesuvius.
Later in the period the more adventurous, especially if provided with a yachtmight attempt Sicily the site of Greek ruinsMalta  or even Greece itself. But Naples — or later Paestum further south — was the usual terminus. From here the traveller traversed the Alps heading north through to the German-speaking parts of Europe.
The traveller might stop first in Innsbruck before visiting ViennaDresdenBerlin and Potsdamwith perhaps some study time at the universities in Munich or Heidelberg.Essay Scholarships.
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Tourism plays a vital role in the economic development of a country. Tourism is the second largest foreign exchange earner in India. Related Articles: Essay on Tourism as an Industry in India.
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