By an ecosophy I mean a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. A philosophy as a kind of sofia or wisdom, is openly normative, it contains both norms, rules, postulates, value priority announcements and hypotheses concerning the state of affairs in our universe. Wisdom is policy wisdom, prescription, not only scientific description and prediction. The concept has become one of the foundations of the deep ecology movement.
With the fall of the former Soviet Unioncapitalism became the dominant global economic system. Even those nations that have retained socialistic or communistic political systems, with few exceptions, have moved toward capitalistic market economies.
The popularity of capitalism is supported by a record of more than two centuries of unparalleled economic productivity in industrial economies around the world.
Socialist and communist nations also have relied on industrial strategies of development, thus the success of capitalism was not due solely to industrialization. Capitalism was uniquely complementary to the industrial strategies of specialization, standardization, and consolidation of control because of its emphasis on narrow individual self-interests.
The combination of capitalism and industrialism has resulted in the most productive economies ever witnessed in human history, at least in terms of material wealth. In spite of impressive records of productivity, people around the world are beginning to question whether capitalistic economies are sustainable over time, ecologically, socially, or even economically.
The negative environmental impacts of industrialization came to widespread public attention in the s, resulting in a worldwide movement to protect the environment.
Ina Club of Rome report, Limits to Growth, focused attention on the broader issues of long run ecological sustainability. In spite of the progress achieved through more than three decades of environmental regulation, threats to ecological sustainability continue.
Soil erosion, water and air pollution, acid rain, atomic radiation, loss of biological diversity, ozone depletion, and global warming are among those continuing threats, and the list of ecological abuses continues to grow. Social isolation, distrust, injustice, inequity, depression, litigation, confrontation, terrorism, and war, while certainly not limited to capitalistic countries, are nonetheless logical social consequences of industrial capitalism.
In spite of growing evidence of ecological destruction and persistent poverty linked to over-population, the so-called developing nations continue their unbridled growth in population.
National leaders, scientists, and activists cite different sets of statistics and debate the tradeoffs between short run economic benefits and long run ecological and social costs, but no serious debate exists regarding whether such questions are relevant or important to the future of global society.
Scientists and scholars also disagree about whether capitalism can be made sustainable through public policies or other means of societal intervention.
However, lacking effective moral and social restraints, the form of capitalism that dominates the global economy today quite simply is not sustainable. Sustainability ultimately depends upon the use of energy because anything that is useful in sustaining life on earth ultimately relies on energy.
All material things that are of any use to humans — food, clothes, houses, automobiles, — require energy to make and energy to use. All useful human activities — working, thinking — require human energy.
And all human energy is extracted from the energy that makes up the things people eat, wear, or use. And most important, each time energy is used to perform work, some of the usefulness of the energy is lost. In performing work, energy is always changed from more-concentrated to less-concentrated forms.
In fact, this natural tendency gives energy its ability to perform work. All material things, such as food, gasoline, plastic, and steel, are just highly concentrated forms of energy. Matter can be converted into useful energy, as in eating food or burning gasoline, and energy can be changed in form to create usefulness, as in using heat to make electricity and electricity to produce light.
However, even though energy invariably changes from more to less concentrated forms as it performs work, no energy is lost. The total energy contained in matter and energy always remains unchanged, regardless of its form, concentration, or level of organization. At first, it might seem that energy could simply be recycled and reused forever.
If so, sustainability would be inevitable. However, once energy is used to perform work, before it can be used again, it must be reconcentrated, reorganized, and restored. Questions of sustainability arise from the fact that energy is required to reconcentrate, reorganize, and restore energy.
The energy used to reconcentrate, reorganize, and restore energy, is simply no longer available to do anything else. It has lost its usefulness; meaning it has lost its ability to perform work. This is the law of entropy, the second law of thermodynamics; the tendency of all closed systems to tend toward the ultimate degradation of matter and energy; a state of inert uniformity of component elements; an absence of structure, pattern, organization, or differentiation.
The barren surfaces of the Moon or Mars are scenes of systems close to entropy. Since the loss of useful energy to entropy is inevitable, it might seem that sustainability is impossible. Pollution is not simply wasted energy but has negative usefulness, in that pollution diminishes the usefulness of other energy sources or requires energy for mitigation purposes.
Even if waste and pollution could be completely avoided, however, the tendency toward entropy would continue. Life on earth quite simply would not be sustainable without the daily inflow of new solar energy.
Sustainability ultimately depends upon the use of solar energy to offset the effects of entropy. Capitalism is a very efficient system of energy extraction, but it includes no consideration of the ultimate necessity of using solar energy, the only truly renewable source of energy, to offset the usefulness of energy lost to entropy.
Individuals have no incentive under capitalism to invest in resource renewal for the benefit of future generations. Capitalists reduce waste and pollution or reuse and recycle resources only when it is profitable to do so, meaning only when it is in their individual self-interest to do so.
When capitalists use energy from renewable sources, they sell the products for current consumption, rather than re-store energy to offset entropy.Fundamentals of Environmental Responsibility Ensuring a Sustainable Environment for Global Food Productioni John Ikerdii Globalization of the food system has put.
The environmental responsibility of business is to increase its profits (by creating value within the bounds of private property rights) — Desrochers 19 (1): — Industrial and Corporate Change, Desrochers meticulously details the history of how the free enterprise system, under its basic tenets of free and voluntary exchange, strong private property rights, and pursuit of profits functioned in the pre .
Eco-capitalism, also known as environmental capitalism or green capitalism, is the view that capital exists in nature as "natural capital" on which all wealth depends, and therefore, market-based government policy instruments should be used to resolve environmental problems.
The term "Blue Greens" is often applied to those who espouse eco-capitalism. It is considered as the right-wing equivalent to Red . For all the prosperity that global capitalism has brought to so many people, though, the world remains beset with social and environmental challenges, from income inequality to .
Environmental Responsibility in Global Capitalism. Global capitalism refers to an economic system and a method of production in which industries, trade, and means of production are mostly owned by private investors and corporations for profits.
Conscious Capitalism vs. Corporate Social Responsibility Conscious Capitalism differs from the traditional understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Moving beyond implementing a local community program or creating a company foundation, a conscious business focuses on an ongoing process of self-awareness.