While the dam is said to be life-line of Gujarat and of great advantage to the adjoining states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, activists of Narmada Bachao Andolan under the leadership of Medha Patakar has been opposing it. Their opposition is based on the assumption that the increasing height of the dam would lead to the submergence of large areas of land where hundreds of villages would be wiped out of existence. The villagers living in these areas must be rehabilitated in a respectable manner before the dam height is allowed to be raised, says Medha Patakar.
As Frank van Laerhoven and Elinor Ostrom have stated; "Prior to the publication of Hardin's article on the tragedy of the commonstitles containing the words 'the commons', ' common pool resources ', or 'common property' were very rare in the academic literature.
The precision of this distinction is not always maintained. The use of "commons" for natural resources has its roots in European intellectual history, where it referred to shared agricultural fields, grazing lands and forests that were, over a period of several hundred years, Essay on narmada bachao andolan, claimed as private property for private use.
In European political texts, the common wealth was the totality of the material riches of the world, such as the air, the water, the soil and the seed, all nature's bounty regarded as the inheritance of humanity as a whole, to be shared together.
In this context, one may go back further, to the Roman legal category res communis, applied to things common to all to be used and enjoyed by everyone, as opposed to res publica, applied to public property managed by the government.
European land use[ edit ] Main article: Common land Originally in medieval England the common was an integral part of the manorand was thus legally part of the estate in land owned by the lord of the manorbut over which certain classes of manorial tenants and others held certain rights.
By extension, the term "commons" has come to be applied to other resources which a community has rights or access to. The older texts use the word "common" to denote any such right, but more modern usage is to refer to particular rights of common, and to reserve the name "common" for the land over which the rights are exercised.
A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. The UK was quite radical in doing away with and enclosing former commons, while southwestern Germany and the alpine countries as e. Switzerland had the most advanced commons structures, and were more inclined to keep them.
The Lower Rhine region took an intermediate position. Mongolian grasslands[ edit ] Based on a research project by the Environmental and Cultural Conservation in Inner Asia ECCIA from tosatellite images were used to compare the amount of land degradation due to livestock grazing in the regions of Mongolia, Russia, and China.
Lobster fishery of Maine[ edit ] Widespread success of the Maine lobster industry is often attributed to the willingness of Maine's lobstermen to uphold and support lobster conservation rules. These rules include harbor territories not recognized by the state, informal trap limits, and laws imposed by the state of Maine which are largely influenced by lobbying from lobster industry itself.
Community forests in Nepal[ edit ] In the late s, Nepal chose to decentralize government control over forests.
Community forest programs work by giving local areas a financial stake in nearby woodlands, and thereby increasing the incentive to protect them from overuse. Local institutions regulate harvesting and selling of timber and land, and must use any profit towards community development and preservation of the forests.
In twenty years, locals have noticed a visible increase in the number of trees. Community forestry may also contribute to community development in rural areas — for instance school construction, irrigation and drinking water channel construction, and road construction.
Community forestry has proven conducive to democratic practices at grass roots level. Acequia Acequia is a method of collective responsibility and management for irrigation systems in desert areas.
In New Mexico, a community-run organization known as Acequia Associations supervises water in terms of diversion, distribution, utilization, and recycling, in order to reinforce agricultural traditions and preserve water as a common resource for future generations.
These commons include literature, music, arts, design, film, video, television, radio, information, software and sites of heritage. Wikipedia is an example of the production and maintenance of common goods by a contributor community in the form of encyclopedic knowledge that can be freely accessed by anyone without a central authority.
Companies that pollute the environment release information about what they are doing. The Corporate Toxics Information Project  and information like the Toxica list of the top polluters,  helps people know what these corporations are doing to the environment.Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) in Environment Protection!
Today we come across various non-governmental organizations whose concerns are focused on various areas such as social issues, health issues, and environmental issues. The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada river near Navagam, Gujarat in yunusemremert.com Indian states, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra and Rajasthan, receive water and electricity supplied from the dam.
The foundation stone of the project was laid out by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on April 5, Narula, Smita, "The Story of Narmada Bachao Andolan: Human Rights in the Global Economy and the Struggle Against the World Bank" ().New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working yunusemremert.com There is a small courthouse from the ‘British era’, standing right in the center of Hong Kong.
It is neat, well-built, remarkably organized and some would even say – elegant. Narmada Bachao Andolan. Narmada River is one of the largest westward-flowing rivers of India. It covers km between the ranges of Vindhyas and Satpuras, and it has a length about kilometers.
Narmada Bachao Andolan(NBA) is a social movement consisting of farmers, adivasis, environmentalists, activists protesting against the implementation of the Sardar Sarovar Project(SSP) on the river Narmada.