July, First Prime-Ministerial visit to Mexico in three decades to enhance bilateral relations. June, Visit to the US to strengthen ties and enhance cooperation between the two countries. June, Meeting with top business leaders in Qatar to deepen industry and trade relations between both countries. Also met the country's business leaders to deepen industry and trade ties between India and Switzerland.
Even in the Rajya Sabha, the representation of women stands at a mere State of Women in political participation: Women are excluded from different walks of life, more visibly in Politics. For the attainment of true democratic spirit they shall be ensured better political participation.
Equal treatment to women in political life, to be meaningful and effective should start from the grassroots level.
To provide training and practice in the process of decision-making, the rural democratic institutions are the ideal structures to begin with.
One of the aims of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act is to accomplish this purpose. The amendment provides reservation of seats and posts of chairperson or women in all grassroots level democratic institutions in the countryside known as panchayats.
What is political participation? The study of political participation of any society or section of people needs to take into account whether or not it is associated with democratic values. The level and extent of political participation of people may be restricted by the very existence of both natural and man-made inequalities.
Participation helps the individual to be effective and associates him with the political system. Higher the rate and levels, the more varied the forms of political participation. It is vital to the proper functioning of a democratic polity. More than anything else, the modem state is distinguished from the traditional ones by the extent to which people participate in politics.
High levels of political participation are usually associated with democracy, which is beneficial both to the individual and to the society. Panchayati Raj is an important political innovation and vital conduit in independent India, for popular participation in democratic development.
The real purpose and impact of participation is to make the citizen not a passive spectator but an agent in politics to enable him to show his disagreement to criticise and block as to push, prod and hasten. It may be defined as lack of interest or concern for persons, situations or phenomena in general or particular.
There are three major reasons for political apathy common for any section of people regardless of gender. Second reason is that the individual may regard political activity as futile.
The third reason is that political stimuli is an important factor in encouraging political activity and the absence of political stimuli may contribute to feelings of apathy.
Patriarchal values reinforced in societies will continuously refuse to believe that a woman can take charge of affairs and is capable of making decisions that are binding to everyone. Women are portrayed as weak and incapable of making smart decisions.
They have been depicted across generations to be only capable of trivial matters, constantly engaged in gossip and hearsay, utterly incompetent and less intelligent. This was projected and reinforced through the years through male-dominated institutions and patriarchal societies which internalized the idea that the woman was inferior.
With the constant reinforcement of the notion that women are inferior in every aspect, it became hard for women to pursue their political rights as an active participant.
Women smallholder farmers and small- and medium-scale entrepreneurs are deprived of access to credit and thus they have low purchasing power parity as well. Their main focus is to meet their daily ends and they give secondary priority to political empowerment. A new research by LeanIn. It acts as a glass ceiling for the women to ascend to the higher levels of political ladder.
Women in India now possess authority through being incumbents of elective positions, this has not been translated into power, i. Gender and other social differences hinder the exercise of power by women representatives, and have reduced their effectiveness as political representatives.Women’s voting participation rate is also an important criterion of women’s political empowerment.
High women’s voter turnout is an important expression of political participation. In , percent of women in India voted to elect parliamentarians, only slightly less than the male turnout of percent according to the Election Commission of India.
Women and Politics delivers the best and most comprehensive text on women’s access to and participation in the political process in the US. It’s sweeping in its breadth, covering historical as well as contemporary examples, local school board and city council politics to the Presidency and Supreme Court, and with illustrations of [both] conservative and progressive women.
EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN INDIA: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS MAMTA MOKTA The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights. "In a country like India with around 49 per cent of women in the population, the political participation of women has been low," it noted.
The survey said there are developing countries like Rwanda which has more than 60 per cent women representatives in Parliament in Policy recommendations.
With a goal of reserving 25% of seats in Parliament for women candidates, Women & Media Collective (), alongside various other women’s groups, have compiled a list of policy recommendations for the 20th Amendment that political parties are encouraged to support.
While there are pros and cons to each of these suggestions, they can ultimately serve as springboards. Facts and figures: Leadership and political participation Women in parliaments.
Only per cent of all national parliamentarians were women as of June , a slow increase from per cent in .As of October , 11 women are serving as Head of State and 12 are serving as Head of Government .Rwanda had the highest number of women parliamentarians worldwide.