Joseph Lubinski Place of Publication: Animal Legal and Historical Center Summary: This article explores the evolution of animal rights, specifically examining the influence of the property status of animals in the U.
Find articles by R. Jezierski Find articles by T. Sossidou Find articles by E. Broom Find articles by D. Abstract Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world.
An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare.
This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes.
The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare.
Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. Nowadays, animal husbandry may well be questioned, not only as regards efficiency of organization, ownership, production, health and economy but also ethically.
Animal welfare has become a growing factor affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world Broom, The public view is that the meaning of: The general public, livestock producers and research scientists have shown an increasing interest in assuring proper animal care in the production chain.
There is a corresponding increase in efforts by research and educational institutions, government agencies, enterprises, health care organizations and others in developing and accessing information that assists in creating appropriate housing environments, management procedures and humane conditions for the production of foods of animal origin.
Most of the developed countries have guidelines in which these minimal requirements or information on the care and use of agricultural animals are given. Regularly updated handbooks on management and husbandry practices for the proper care of farm animals are issued by producer organizations and commodity groups.
These guidelines are usually not legally binding but attempt to represent the state of the art on production practices.
Ethos is defined as character, sentiment, or disposition of a community or people, considered as a natural endowment; the spirit which actuates manners and customs; also, the characteristic tone of an institution or social organization.
Something is moral if it pertains to right rather than wrong and ethics is the study of moral issues Broom, Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society requires of its members.
Moral behaviour is a necessity for stable social groups, including those of humans, so the basis for it has evolved Ridley, ; de Waal, ; Broom, ; A major factor affecting animal welfare issues in many parts of the world is the Judeo-Christian concept of human dominion over animals.
Differing attitudes and beliefs regarding the relationship of humankind to other creatures has been a topic of interest for civilizations.
The ancient societies of Greece and Rome also played an important role in the formation of attitudes towards animals. There were four basic schools of thought in ancient Greece regarding human-animal relationships: The teachings of Thomas Aquinas — and Francis of Assisi or — are a cornerstone in western philosophical consideration of human-animal relationships.
The anthropocentric philosophy professed by Aquinas continues to influence Christian attitudes on the subject still today.
In their development Eastern religions Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism abandoned animal sacrifice. Each religion emphasizes two concepts with regard to human-animal relationships: The doctrine of non-violence or non-killing is taken from Hindu, Buddhist and Jainist philosophies.
Muslims are taught that Allah has given people power over animals, yet to treat them badly is disobey his will see review by Broom, In the period of renaissance and enlightenment, the basics of modern philosophy developed. Descartes — was a major figure in these changes in philosophy.
More recently, ReganSinger and others have presented the view that pain and suffering of any animal, or at least of certain complex animals, are bad and should be prevented or minimized. It is important to consider a range of opinions in an attempt to determine the truth Rohr, Mar 02, · In light of the recent discussion on animal testing and animal rights I thought a few additional points would be valuable.
It is a fact that animal testing leads to some necessary medical advances. Animal cruelty can be looked at through two different perspectives. Such as if someone hunting they may not think of it as animal cruelty.
If a person is not a hunter they can look at hunting as cruel to animals. After an intense campaign by policymakers and animal rights groups, the Green Hill animal breeding firm closed its doors, having handed more than 2, dogs over to animal rights campaigners in line with the court ruling.
Animal rights are not about putting animals above humans or giving animals the same rights as humans. Also, animal rights are very different from animal welfare. To most animal rights activists, animal rights are grounded in a rejection of speciesism and the knowledge .
People don’t like getting sick, and they like discussions of how treatments for illness are developed even less. Humanity has long been uncomfortable with animal testing. Emotion-evoking pictures of caged animals make it easy to forget the frequently laudable ends met through animal testing, and beg the question: to what extent should ethical concerns about [ ].
Addressing ethical questions about ownership, protection against unjustified suffering, and the ability of animals to make their own choices free from human control, the authors offer numerous different perspectives on animal rights and animal welfare.