Certain words carry more power than others. This theory breaks persuasive words into three categories: You, Because, Free, Instantly, and New. How to write for what we all crave We all know how important food, water, shelter, and warmth are to survival.
Not all communication is intended to be persuasive; other purposes include informing or entertaining. Persuasion often involves manipulating people, and for this reason many find the exercise distasteful. Others might argue that, without some degree of social control and mutual accommodation such as that obtained through persuasion, the human community becomes disordered.
In this way, persuasion gains moral acceptability when the alternatives are considered. In the universities of Europe during the Middle Ages, persuasion rhetoric was one of the basic liberal arts to be mastered by any educated man; from the days of imperial Rome through the Reformation, it was raised to a fine art by preachers who used the spoken word to inspire any number of actions, such as virtuous behaviour or religious pilgrimages.
In the modern era, persuasion is most visible in the form of advertising. The process of persuasion can be analyzed in a preliminary way by distinguishing communication as the cause or stimulus from the associated changes in attitudes as the effect or response.
Analysis has led to the delineation of a series of successive steps that a person undergoes in being persuaded. The communication first is presented; the person pays attention to it and comprehends its contents including the basic conclusion being urged and perhaps also the evidence offered in its support.
For persuasion to be effected, the individual must yield to, or agree with, the point being urged and, unless only the most immediate impact is of interest, must retain this new position long enough to act on it. The ultimate goal of the persuasive process is for individuals or a group to carry out the behaviour implied by the new attitudinal position; for example, a person enlists in the army or becomes a Buddhist monk or begins to eat a certain brand of cereal for breakfast.
Some, but by no means all, theorists emphasize similarities between education and persuasion. They hold that persuasion closely resembles the teaching of new information through informative communication.
Thus, since repetition in communication modifies learningthey infer that it has persuasive impact as well and that principles of verbal learning and conditioning are widely and profitably applied by persuaders as, for example, in the judicious repetition of television advertisements.
The learning approach tends to emphasize attention, comprehension, and retention of the message. Words in a newspaper advertisement may exhibit different persuasive qualities if they are printed in red instead of in black. The approach stresses attention and comprehension.
While learning and perceptual theorists may stress objective intellectual steps involved in the process of being persuaded, functional theorists emphasize more subjective motivational aspects. According to this view, humans are essentially ego-defensive—that is, human activities and beliefs function to satisfy conscious and unconscious personal needs that may have little to do with the objects toward which those attitudes and actions are directed.
The functional approach would theorize, for example, that ethnic prejudice and other forms of social hostility derive more from individual personality structure than from information about the nature of the social groups. Other theories view the person confronted with persuasive communication as being in the vexing role of finding some reasonable compromise among many conflicting forces —e.
Those who stress this conflict-resolution model frequently called congruity, balance, consistency, or dissonance theorists focus on how people weigh these forces in adjusting their attitudes.
Some theorists who take this point of departure stress the intellectual aspects of persuasion, while others emphasize emotional considerations. An extension of the conflict-resolution model is the elaboration-likelihood model ELM of persuasion, put forth in by American psychologists John Cacioppo and Richard Petty.
The ELM emphasizes the cognitive processing with which people react to persuasive communications. According to this model, if people react to a persuasive communication by reflecting on the content of the message and its supporting arguments, the subsequent attitude change is likely to be more firmly established and more resistant to counterpersuasion.
On the other hand, if people react to a persuasive communication with relatively little such reflection, the subsequent attitude change is likely to be ephemeral. Each of the approaches considered above tends to neglect one or more steps in the process of being persuaded and thus serves to supplement rather than supplant the others.
A more eclectic and inclusive approach, growing out of information-processing theory, is oriented toward a consideration of all the options implied by the communication aspects of source, message, channel or mediumreceiver, and destination behaviour to be influenced ; each option is appraised for its persuasive efficacy in terms of presentation, attention, comprehension, yielding, retention, and overt behaviour.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Informative (or informational) and persuasive speaking are related, but distinct, types of speeches. The difference between the two lies in the speaker’s end goal and . Informative Speech: Stress Management - General Purpose: To inform the audience about the cause, affect and ways to manage stress.
Specific Purpose Statement: The audience will learn what causes stress and how stress can affect their health, and how they can manage their everyday stress with different techniques. That’s why leaders from many of the world’s most recognized corporate, industrial, educational and organizational institutions as well as authors, celebrities and sports figures turn to Carmie McCook & Associates when they want exceptional communication training and genuine results.
The change communication campaign delivered by Thought Bubble offered solutions to common problems, stressed product benefits and overcame potential objections and created a sense of yunusemremert.com messages were informative, involved and inspiring for our + users around the world, which translated into a much higher adoption rate.
Before proceeding to the main topic, let us get some idea on Informative speech. Well, it is the type of speech that gives information about a particular subject to audiences. 3 Teachers of English and the International Reading Association that apply to the LAL program and recommended teaching activities included in this educational supplement.